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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
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18 февраля, 21:01

Elongation factor-Tu can repetitively engage aminoacyl-tRNA within the ribosome during the proofreading stage of tRNA selection [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

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The substrate for ribosomes actively engaged in protein synthesis is a ternary complex of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA), and GTP. EF-Tu plays a critical role in mRNA decoding by increasing the rate and fidelity of aa-tRNA selection at each mRNA codon. Here, using three-color single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy...

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18 февраля, 21:01

Conformational spread and dynamics in allostery of NMDA receptors [Neuroscience]

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Allostery can be manifested as a combination of repression and activation in multidomain proteins allowing for fine tuning of regulatory mechanisms. Here we have used single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) and molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanism of allostery underlying negative cooperativity between the two agonists glutamate...

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18 февраля, 21:01

Drosophila YBX1 homolog YPS promotes ovarian germ line stem cell development by preferentially recognizing 5-methylcytosine RNAs [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

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5-Methylcytosine (m5C) is a RNA modification that exists in tRNAs and rRNAs and was recently found in mRNAs. Although it has been suggested to regulate diverse biological functions, whether m5C RNA modification influences adult stem cell development remains undetermined. In this study, we show that Ypsilon schachtel (YPS), a homolog...

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18 февраля, 21:01

Selective targeting of TET catalytic domain promotes somatic cell reprogramming [Cell Biology]

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Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes (TET1, TET2, and TET3) oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and generate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) marks on the genome. Each TET protein also interacts with specific binding partners and partly plays their role independent of catalytic activity. Although the basic role of TET enzymes is well established now, the...

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18 февраля, 21:01

Splice switching an oncogenic ratio of SmgGDS isoforms as a strategy to diminish malignancy [Cell Biology]

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The chaperone protein SmgGDS promotes cell-cycle progression and tumorigenesis in human breast and nonsmall cell lung cancer. Splice variants of SmgGDS, named SmgGDS-607 and SmgGDS-558, facilitate the activation of oncogenic members of the Ras and Rho families of small GTPases through membrane trafficking via regulation of the prenylation pathway. SmgGDS-607...

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18 февраля, 21:01

TIP5 primes prostate luminal cells for the oncogenic transformation mediated by PTEN-loss [Cell Biology]

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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Its clinical and molecular heterogeneities and the lack of in vitro models outline the complexity of PCa in the clinical and research settings. We established an in vitro mouse PCa model based on organoid technology that takes...

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18 февраля, 21:01

Ecological drivers of bacterial community assembly in synthetic phycospheres [Ecology]

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In the nutrient-rich region surrounding marine phytoplankton cells, heterotrophic bacterioplankton transform a major fraction of recently fixed carbon through the uptake and catabolism of phytoplankton metabolites. We sought to understand the rules by which marine bacterial communities assemble in these nutrient-enhanced phycospheres, specifically addressing the role of host resources in...

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18 февраля, 21:01

Mismatches between demographic niches and geographic distributions are strongest in poorly dispersed and highly persistent plant species [Ecology]

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The ecological niche of a species describes the variation in population growth rates along environmental gradients that drives geographic range dynamics. Niches are thus central for understanding and forecasting species’ geographic distributions. However, theory predicts that migration limitation, source–sink dynamics, and time-lagged local extinction can cause mismatches between niches and...

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18 февраля, 21:01

Transdermal cold atmospheric plasma-mediated immune checkpoint blockade therapy [Engineering]

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Despite the promise of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy against cancer, challenges associated with low objective response rates and severe systemic side effects still remain and limit its clinical applications. Here, we described a cold atmospheric plasma (CAP)-mediated ICB therapy integrated with microneedles (MN) for the transdermal delivery of ICB....

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18 февраля, 21:01

Combining microenvironment normalization strategies to improve cancer immunotherapy [Engineering]

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Advances in immunotherapy have revolutionized the treatment of multiple cancers. Unfortunately, tumors usually have impaired blood perfusion, which limits the delivery of therapeutics and cytotoxic immune cells to tumors and also results in hypoxia—a hallmark of the abnormal tumor microenvironment (TME)—that causes immunosuppression. We proposed that normalization of TME using...

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18 февраля, 21:01

Impacts of current and future large dams on the geographic range connectivity of freshwater fish worldwide [Environmental Sciences]

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Dams contribute to water security, energy supply, and flood protection but also fragment habitats of freshwater species. Yet, a global species-level assessment of dam-induced fragmentation is lacking. Here, we assessed the degree of fragmentation of the occurrence ranges of ∼10,000 lotic fish species worldwide due to ∼40,000 existing large dams...

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18 февраля, 21:01

Shale gas development has limited effects on stream biology and geochemistry in a gradient-based, multiparameter study in Pennsylvania [Environmental Sciences]

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The number of horizontally drilled shale oil and gas wells in the United States has increased from nearly 28,000 in 2007 to nearly 127,000 in 2017, and research has suggested the potential for the development of shale resources to affect nearby stream ecosystems. However, the ability to generalize current studies...